History of Mughal Empire in India
The Mughal Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, established and ruled by a Muslim Persianate reign of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over big parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.
Establishment of Mughal Empire
The establishment of the empire is predictably dated to the founder Babur’s triumph over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal Empire did not aim to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather evenhanded and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more logical, federal, and uniform regulation.
The reign (1628–58) of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best acknowledged of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial area during the sovereignty of Aurangzeb and also started its incurable decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale.
Founder of Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol defeater Timur (the founder of the Timurid Empire) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, the succeeding son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side. Babur’s military occupied much of northern India after his success at Panipat in 1526.
Akbar’s son, Jahangir, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, mistreated the affairs of the state, and came under the manipulation of opponent court cliques. During the reign of Jahangir’s son, Shah Jahan, the culture and splendor of the lavish Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal. The protection of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue.
Historians have presented numerous explanations for the speedy crumple of the Mughal Empire between 1707 and 1720, after a century of escalation and prosperity. The emperor lost ability, as the extensively scattered imperial officers lost assurance in the central authorities, and made their own deals with local men. The majestic army, bogged down in long, futile wars against the more aggressive Marathas, lost its fighting strength. Then arrived a series of violent political feuds over power of the throne. Since the 1970s historians have taken manifold approaches to the decline, with little consensus on which factor was overriding. The psychological interpretations highlight depravity in high places, excessive luxury, and increasingly narrow views that left the rulers unprepared for an external challenge.
A major Mughal contribution to the Indian subcontinent was their inimitable architecture. Many monuments were built by the Muslim emperors, especially Shah Jahan, during the Mughal era including the UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal, which is known to be one of the greatest examples of Mughal architecture. Other World Heritage Sites include Humayun’s Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri, the Red Fort, the Agra Fort, and the Lahore Fort
The palaces, tombs, and forts built by the dynasty situate today in Agra, Aurangabad, Delhi, Dhaka, Fatehpur Sikri, Jaipur, Lahore, and many other cities of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.
Although Persian was the dominant and “official” language of the empire, the language of the elite later evolved into a form known as Urdu.
The Indian economy remained as flourishing under the Mughals as it was, because of the construction of a road system and a standardized currency, together with the unification of the country. Manufactured goods and peasant-grown cash crops were sold all throughout the world. Main industries included shipbuilding (the Indian shipbuilding industry was as superior as the European, and Indians sold ships to European firms), textiles, and steel.
Mughal astronomers continued to make advances in observational astronomy and produced nearly a hundred Zij treatises. Humayun built a special observatory near Delhi. The instruments and observational techniques used at the Mughal observatories were mainly derived from the Islamic tradition. In particular, one of the most extraordinary astronomical instruments invented in Mughal India is the seamless celestial globe.
Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar, prepared a volley gun.
Akbar was the first to initiate and use metal cylinder rockets known as bans principally against War elephants, during the Battle of Sanbal.
In the year 1657, the Mughal Army used rockets during the Siege of Bidar. Prince Aurangzeb’s forces released rockets and grenades while scaling the walls. Sidi Marjan was severely wounded when a rocket struck his large gunpowder depot, and after twenty-seven days of hard struggle Bidar was captured by the victorious Mughals.
Later, the Mysorean rockets were upgraded versions of Mughal rockets used during the Siege of Jinji by the progeny of the Nawab of Arcot. Hyder Ali’s father Fatah Muhammadthe constable at Budikote commanded a corps consisting of 50 rocketmen (Cushoon) for the Nawab of Arcot. Hyder Ali realised the significance of rockets and introduced highly developed versions of metal cylinder rockets. These rockets turned fortunes in favor of the Sultanate of Mysore during the Second Anglo-Mysore War, mainly during theBattle of Pollilur.
This era contributed significantly towards the architecture, technology and astronomy sector. It gave the country a lot of things that we still cherish.